CMAT General Awareness questions for practice

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C-MAT PRACTICE SET 1 -English Language

 Directions :  In each of the following questions, out of the given alternatives, choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the given word.

1. EAGER    

(a) Clever

(b) Enthusiastic

(c) Curious (Ans)

(d) Devoted



(a) Clear

(b) Calm (Ans)

(c) Enjoyable

(d) Dull



(a) Boast

(b) Remember (Ans)

(c) Manipulate

(d) Harmonise


(a) Face

(b) Worship (Ans)

(c) Flatter

(d) Challenge



(a) Pageantries

(b) Privileges (Ans)

(c) Facilities

(d) Courtesies



(a) Injustice

(b) Unlikeness (Ans)

(c) Partiality

(d) Distortion



(a) Arrogant

(b) Impolite

(c) Uncivilized (Ans)

(d) Unkind



(a) Unlawful

(b) Deadly (Ans)

(c) Sluggish

(d) Smooth



(a) Solemn

(b) Meak

(c) Delicate

(d) Calm (Ans)



(a) Hateful

(b) Painful

(c) Tragic

(d) Frightful (Ans)



(a) Secret

(b) Comfortable

(c) Safe (Ans)

(d) Independent



(a) Misrule

(b) Power

(c) Madness

(d) Cruelty (Ans)



(a) Useful

(b) Required (Ans)

(c) Stubborn

(d) Agreeable



(a) Ignorant

(b) Interpreter (Ans)

(c) Delinquent

(d) Lover of art



(a) Violent

(b) Resourceful

(c) Pleasing

(d) Rash (Ans)



(a) Tiny

(b) Vague (Ans)

(c) Insignificant

(d) Inadequate



(a) Jealousy

(b) Hatred

(c) Anger (Ans)

(d) Violence



(a) Abscond

(b) Discontinue (Ans)

(c) Neglect

(d) Condense



(a) Vigilant

(b) Confident

(c) Shy (Ans)

(d) Hopeful



(a) Distribute

(b) Decorate

(c) Preserve

(d) Collect (Ans)



(a) Laxity  (Ans)

(b) Impassivity

(c) Serenity

(d) Listlessness



(a) Scold  (Ans)

(b) Judge

(c) Downgrade

(d) Deny



(a) Stagnant

(b) Gloomy

(c) Dying  (Ans)

(d) Superfluous



(a) Loss

(b) Refund

(c) Compensation

(d) Discount  (Ans)



(a) Lament   (Ans)

(b) Soothe

(c) Denounce

(d) Loathe



(a) Concern

(b) Admiration

(c) Malice    (Ans)

(d) Indifference



(a) Plenty

(b) Competent

(c) Fertile    (Ans)

(d) Predominant



(a) Weaken     (Ans)

(b) Attack

(c) Surmount

(d) Destroy



(a) Pretty

(b) Modest

(c) Showy     (Ans)

(d) Flagrant



(a) Friendly     (Ans)

(b) Cheerful

(c) Helpful

(d) Neutral



(a) Frustrate

(b) Cheat

(c) Pervert    (Ans)

(d) Depress



(a) Assess

(b) Evaluate

(c) Fickle

(d) Loiter     (Ans)



(a) Odd

(b) Ridiculous

(c) Excessive      (Ans)

(d) Threatening



(a) Movable

(b) Crucial      (Ans)

(c) Internal

(d) Mechanical



(a) Thoughtless

(b) Unkind

(c) Coarse      (Ans)

(d) Illiterate



(a) Bitter

(b) Reverse

(c) Opposite      (Ans)

(d) Adverse



(a) Sorrow

(b) Enthusiasm

(c) Adventure

(d) Merriment      (Ans)



(a) Big

(b) Excellent

(c) Tragic

(d) Terrible      (Ans)



(a) Intelligent

(b) Energetic

(c) Modest

(d) Industrious      (Ans)



(a) Abort

(b) Span

(c) Shorten      (Ans)

(d) Cross


41. WHIM

(a) Fancy      (Ans)

(b) Clumsy

(c) Desire

(d) Strange behaviour



(a) Distant

(b) Repulsive

(c) Honest

(d) Immoral      (Ans)



(a) Defective

(b) Untrue      (Ans)

(c) Incorrect

(d) Inaccurate



(a) Religious chant

(b) Pun

(c) Musical subject

(d) Curse       (Ans)



(a) Miser       (Ans)

(b) Loyal

(c) Divine

(d) Shrewd



(a) Pity

(b) Embroil

(c) Appease       (Ans)

(d) Amuse



(a) Self-denial       (Ans)

(b) Self-sacrifice

(c) Self-praise

(d) Self-criticism



(a) Ensue

(b) Interfere       (Ans)

(c) Displace

(d) Precede



(a) Scold

(b) Attach

(c) Wear off       (Ans)

(d) Twist



(a) Clever

(b) Proud

(c) Hopeful       (Ans)

(d) Modest

Directions : Pick up the correct synonyms for each of the following words.


(a) Prosperous (Ans)

(b) Poor

(c) Talkative

(d) Close


52.  LIMP   

(a) Kneel

(b) Bend

(c) Falter  (Ans)

(d) Stoop



(a) Never

(b) Usual

(c) Rare

(d) Sometimes  (Ans)


54.  MASSACRE   

(a) Stab

(b) Slaughter  (Ans)

(c) Murder

(d) Assassinate


55.  BELITTLE   

(a) Diminish

(b) Mock

(c) Disparage  (Ans)

(d) Scoff



(a) Edit

(b) Alter  (Ans)

(c) Correct

(d) Reconsider



(a) Darken

(b) Abolish

(c) Differentiate  (Ans)

(d) Confuse


58.  ACCUSE    

(a) Absolve

(b) Exonerate

(c) Vindicate

(d) Impeach   (Ans)


59. RECOVER    

(a) Recoup  (Ans)

(b) Revive

(c) Heal

(d) Return


60.  ADMONISH    

(a) Threaten   (Ans)

(b) Praise

(c) Appeal

(d) Support


61. GRATIFY    

(a) Frank

(b) Appreciate

(c) Pacify   (Ans)

(d) Indulge


62. PENCHANT    

(a) Like  (Ans)

(b) Eagerness

(c) Disability

(d) Dislike



(a) Deal

(b) Return

(c) Lend

(d) Exchange    (Ans)



(a) Distasteful

(b) Unmanageable

(c) Excessive    (Ans)

(d) Unmindful



(a) Suspend

(b) Dismiss

(c) End    (Ans)

(d) Interrupt


66. DANK

(a) Dangerous

(b) Ugly

(c) Plunder

(d) Damp    (Ans)



(a) Donation

(b) Gift     (Ans)

(c) Pleasure

(d) Reward



(a) Selfless

(b) Foolish

(c) Follower

(d) Pioneer     (Ans)



(a) Disobey

(b) Challenge

(c) Deny

(d) Disapprove    (Ans)



(a) Level

(b) Expanse     (Ans)

(c) Grade

(d) Standing


71. BASH

(a) Strike      (Ans)

(b) Neglect

(c) Ignore

(d) Embrace



(a) Postpone

(b) Accept

(c) Bargain       (Ans)

(d) Reject



(a) Awful

(b) Irrelevant

(c) Shallow

(d) Profound       (Ans)


74. YOB

(a) Annoyed

(b) Intelligent

(c) Humble

(d) Aggressive       (Ans)



(a) Climax       (Ans)

(b) Beginning

(c) Middle

(d) Bottom



(a) Gloomy      (Ans)

(b) Diseased

(c) Calm

(d) Disappointed



(a) Crisis

(b) Misfortune      (Ans)

(c) Failure

(d) Helplessness



(a) Rude

(b) Impertinent

(c) Blunt

(d) Frank      (Ans)



(a) Unreal

(b) Mythical

(c) Short-living      (Ans)

(d) Artificial



(a) Easy

(b) Obstinate     (Ans)

(c) Willing

(d) Pliable



(a) Indentification

(b) Preface

(c) Forecast      (Ans)

(d) Scheme



(a) Confound

(b) Suffer

(c) Sacrifice

(d) Beget      (Ans)


83. GLIB

(a) Smooth      (Ans)

(b) Indifferent

(c) Gainful

(d) Rough



(a) Reserve      (Ans)

(b) Hesitation

(c) Changeableness

(d) Dumbness



(a) Appearance

(b) Clothing      (Ans)

(c) Confidence

(d) Manner



(a) Colourful

(b) Jovial

(c) Bright

(d) Mournful     (Ans)



(a) Wipe out      (Ans)

(b) Weaken

(c) Insult

(d) Repair



(a) Graceful

(b) Joyous      (Ans)

(c) Giddy

(d) Other worldly



(a) Foolishness

(b) Mission      (Ans)

(c) Misadventure

(d) Error



(a) Vulgar      (Ans)

(b) Attractive

(c) Refined

(d) Indifferent



(a) Defensive

(b) Humble

(c) Determined      (Ans)

(d) Delicate



(a) Decide

(b) Realize

(c) Accept      (Ans)

(d) Commit



(a) Depressive

(b) Sedate      (Ans)

(c) Backward

(d) Dull



(a) Uncertain

(b) Agreeable

(c) Talkative

(d) Dangerous      (Ans)



(a) Profuse      (Ans)

(b) Showy

(c) Gay

(d) Carefree



(a) Induce

(b) Extract       (Ans)

(c) Divulge

(d) Instill



(a) Formidable

(b) Bitter

(c) Pregnant

(d) Solemn       (Ans)


98. DUD

(a) Failure       (Ans)

(b) Foolishness

(c) Sickness

(d) Negligence



(a) Communicate

(b) Paint

(c) Express

(d) Draw       (Ans)



(a) Weak

(b) Unpopular        (Ans)

(c) Flourishing

(d) Starving



Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases in the passage are printed in italics to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.


 Passage  1                                              


                Today the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on the raw  materials and components ranges from 40% to 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on components, once a machine is made, it suffers excise duty from 5% to 10% (including on the customs duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation, i.e., central from 4% to 16%. This much for the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost of manufacture of machine tools is the very hegh rate of interest payable to banks ranging upto 22%, as against 4%-7% prevailing in advanced countries.


            The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India’s machine tools builders have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reasons for the high cost of Indian machines.


            The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builders were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.


            It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The Government of India has always given a great deal of importance to the development of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India’s machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. Is it anybody’s case that the needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away ?


            Then, what is it that the industry requests from the Government? It wants level playing field.  In fact, all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic and vital interests of the nation. Most important, it requests for the Govt’s consideration and understanding.

1.  According to the passage, assembling imported components into machines proves ultimately

(a) cheaper than importing complete machine (Ans)

(b) costlier than importing machine

(c) more cost effective than importing machine

(d) on par with the cost of imported machine

(e) a very stupendous and unmanageable task


2.  According to the passage, all the following factors are responsible for high cost of Indian machines except

(a) higher import duty on spares

(b) excise duty

(c) bank’s rate of interest on loans for manufacture

(d) high profit margin expected by manufacturers  (Ans)

(e) sales tax


3.  If the bank’s rate of interest in India is made on par with that in advanced countries, the cost of manufacture of machine tools

(a) may go up by about 4 to 7%

(b) may increase by about 22%

(c) may decrease by about 4 to 7% 

(d) may decrease by about 15 to 18%  (Ans)

(e) will remain the same due to import duty


4The availability of Indian machine tool industries help to small scale industry is most likely to result into

(a) increase in the demand of imported machine tools

(b) deterioration in the quality of components manufactured by them

(c) further increase in the customs duty on imported machines

(d) enhancement in the quality and quantity of their production at a cheaper cost (Ans)

(e) severe competition among the small and medium scale industries


5.  Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

(a) India’s machine tool industry has a praise-worthy record of performance.  (Ans)

(b) In critical times, the machine tool builders allowed the industry to perish.

(c) In the case of machines, the excise duty is levied only on the cost price.

(d) India’s quantum of production of machine tools is more than that of other advanced countries

(e) None of these


6The disparity in the quantum of machine production in India and that in other countries leads to

(a) the development of small scale and medium scale industries

(b) lethargy in the process of absorption and assimilation of new technology

(c) a need to pay higher for components and spares  (Ans)

(d) overproduction of machines as compared to the actual need.

(e) the necessity to export the machine from India to other countries


7.  Which of the following statements is definitely true in the context of the passage?

A. The vital role of India’s machine tool industry has not been duly recognised by the Government.

B. Small  scale industries performance can be further improved with the help from Indian machine tool industry.

C. The author of the passage has not discussed all the factors which are responsible for high cost of Indian machines.
(a) A & B (Ans)

(b) A & C

(c) B & C

(d) All of these

(e) None of these


8.  Which of the following best explains the sentence ‘It wants a level playing field’ as used in the passage? The machine tool industry in  India

(a) wants to adopt novel marketing strategies for sale promotion

(b) seeks to have small scale industry as its patron

(c) needs freedom to import the desired components at a low cost  (Ans)

(d) needs land for opening more factories

(e) None of these


9.  Why do small and medium scale industries look for help from India’s machine tool industry?

(a) To produce low cost components without dilution in quality

(b) To produce cheaper components

(c) To remain in Government’s focus of attention (Ans)

(d) To improve their poor financial status

(e) None of these


10.  Which of the following inference can be drawn from the content of the passage?

(a) The Govt. of India has duly recognised the role of machine tool industry.

(b) Levying heavy custom duty is absolutely necessary.

(c) The Govt. of India was not considerate to the difficulties faced by machine tool industry.

(d) India should not waste its precious resources on the production of  machine tools.  (Ans)

(e) Banks in other countries are running in loss owing to a low interest rate.


11.  Which of the following is the principal focus of the content of the passage?

(a) Reduction in rate of interest on loans to machine tool industry

(b) Indian machine tool industry and its vital role in country’s development  (Ans)

(c) Encouragement to small and middle scale industries

(d) Unrealistic strategy of development of technology.

(e) Exhorbitant sales tax



 Passage  2


                Motivations for ruralism in under developed countries are understandably different from those in developed countries. There, it is  a  sheer physical necessity for the very act of man’s survival. In the Third World countries, which are predominantly rural, the only lever that can lift human life above its present subhuman level, is rural development. Rural life in such countries has been stagnating for countries on end. Nothing worthwhile has been done to ameliorate the conditions of the rural population which is only slightly different from that of their quadruped counterparts. Ignorance, ill health and poverty have become synonyms of rural life in the undeveloped and underdeveloped countries. But the worst tragedy is that the concerned human populations have taken this state of affairs for granted, as something unalterable, something for which there is no remedy. Every ray of hope has gone out of their lives. In such countries, Rural Development is the inevitable condition of any material or non-material advancement. As such, enlightened sections of all such countries have been taking ever growing interest in the question of Rural Development.


            This was also part of the legacy of their freedom struggle. In countries like India, it is well-known that attempts at Rural Development were an inseparable part of the Independence movement. Leaders like Gandhiji realized quite well that real India lived in her stagnating villages. Cities, which were mostly the products of Western colonialism, were just artificial showpieces. Even there, there were two worlds. The  posh areas, where the affluent few, mostly the products and custodians of imperial interest lived, were little islands engulfed by the vast ocean of dirt, represented by the vast majority of people.


            Cities were by no means unknown to India, but in ancient India, they were integral parts, organically related to the rest of the country and society. But, modern cities are exotic centres of commercial and industrial exploitation. Cities in ancient India were the flowers of cultural and artistic excellence of the cultural and artistic excellence of the nation, modern cities are just parasites, preying on an debilitating the country.


            Hence, Gandhiji started the ‘Go to Village Movement’ which alone, according to him, could bring freedom to India and sustain it. Rural Development had the pride of place in his strategy for the nation’s freedom. Thus, it had its origin in the freedom struggle.


1.  People are taking growing interest in Rural Development because

(a) nothing worthwhile can be done in the near future.

(b) they have now become optimistic about it.

(c) they have realized the indispensability of it.  (Ans)

(d) they have been suffering from severe health problems.


2Which of the following is the ‘lever’ according to the passage?

(a) Upliftment of the rural masses  (Ans)

(b) Enlightenment of certain sections of the society 

(c) Non-material advancement

(d) Stagnation of rural life


3Which of the following is the worst tragedy according to the author?

(a) Lack of realization of the importance of rural development

(b) Exploitation of the rural people by the city-dwellers

(c) The subhuman condition of the people

(d) The pessimism of the rural people about their own conditions.   (Ans)


4Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?

(a) Most of the rich people dwelling in modern cities are genuinely concerned about rural development.  (Ans)

(b) Rural development is a pre-requisite of any other advancement and progress.

(c) The rural folk in the Third World countries feel that their subhuman condition cannot be improved.

(d) Only rural development can raise the standard of living of people in the Third World countries. 


5Rural Development was considered as a part of India’s freedom movement because

(a) Gandhiji was against the Western colonialism.

(b) real India was then under the British rule.

(c) imperial interest lived only in villages.

(d) the country comprised of mainly villages.  (Ans)


6The standard of living of human beings in the Third World countries is

(a) subhuman despite best efforts for improvement

(b) not far better than that of animals  (Ans)

(c) improving very rapidly

(d) immune to any improvement


7In which of the following aspects were the ancient Indian cities different from the modern ones?

(a) Wealth

(b) Growing population

(c) Trade and Commerce

(d) Oneness with the society  (Ans)

(e) Posh localities


8.  Which of the following best describes the two divergent worlds of the modern cities?

(a) Commercial and industrial exploitation 

(b) Patrons of western products and custodians of imperial interests

(c) A few rich people and many poor people  (Ans)

(d) Posh area and affluent people


9.  Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage?

(a) The rural folk are very optimistic about improvement in their condition.

(b) In the present context, ignorance, poverty and ill health are inseparable parts of rural life.  (Ans)

(c) Most of the Third World countries are undergoing fast urbanization.

(d) India’s struggle for freedom has been considered as a part of rural development.



Directions (Questions 10-12)  : Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the given word as used in the passage.



(a) extra-ordinarily

(b) mostly  (Ans)

(c) forcefully

(d) undoubtedly



(a) clearly visible

(b) shining brightly

(c) economically privileged

(d) fully awakened   (Ans)



(a) groups of people  (Ans)

(b) combination of units

(c) collection of thoughts

(d) assembly of spectators


Directions (Questions 13-15)  : Choose the word which  is opposite in meaning to the given word as used in the passage.



(a) Expedite

(b) Hasten

(c) Worsen  (Ans)

(d) Lessen


14.  engulfed

(a) Disfigured

(b) Dislocated

(c) Different

(d) Detached  (Ans)



(a) Inhabiting

(b) Strengthening  (Ans)

(c) Enfeebling

(d) Occupying 


Passage  3                                             


            Although cynics may like to see the government’s policy for women in terms of the party’s internal power struggles, it will nevertheless be churlish to deny that it represents a pioneering effort aimed at bringing about sweeping social reforms. In its language, scope and strategies, the policy document displays a degree of understanding of women’s  needs that is uncommon in government pronouncements. This is due in large part to the participatory process that marked its formulation, seeking the active involvement right from the start of women’s groups, academic institutions and non-government organizations with grass roots experience.  The result is not just a lofty declaration of principles but a blueprint for a practical Programme of action.  The policy delineates a series of concrete measures to accord women a decision-making role in the political domain and greater control over their economic status. Of especially far-reaching impact are the devolution of control of economic infrastructure to women, notably at the gram panchayat level, and the amendments proposed in the Hindu Succession Act of 1956 to give women coparcenary rights.


            An enlightened aspect of the policy is its recognition that actual change in the status of women can not be brought about by the mere enactment of socially progressive legislation. Accordingly, it focusses on reorienting development programmes and sensitising  administrations to address specific situations as, for instance, the growing number of households headed  by women, which is a consequence of rural-urban migration. The proposal to create an equal-opportunity police force and give women greater control of police stations is an acknowledgement of the biases and callousness displayed by the generally all-male  law-enforcement authorities in cases of dowry and domestic violence. While the mere enunciation of such a policy has the salutary effect of sensitising the administration as a whole,  it does not make the task of its implementation any easier. This is because the changes it envisages in the political and economic status of women strike at the root of power structures in society and the basis of man-woman relationships. There is also the danger that reservation for women in public life, while necessary for their greater visibility, could lapse into tokenism or become a tool in the hands of vote seeking politicians. Much will depend on the dissemination of the policy and the ability of elected representatives and government agencies to reorder their priorities.


1.  Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(a) Most of the government’s policies are formulated through participatory process. 

(b) There is need for stricter legislation.

(c) The recommends reservation for women.  (Ans)

(d) Domestic violence is one the rise.

(e) Women already had coparcenary rights.


2.  Which of the following is true about the policy ?

(a) This is another pronouncement by the government.

(b) It is a pioneering effort.  (Ans)

(c) It is not based on the understanding of woman’s needs.

(d) It has made many big declarations.

(e) In its formulation, participatory approach was not followed.


3.  According to the passage, which of the following is a consequence of rural-urban migration?

(a) Legislation is not enforced properly.

(b) Many women migrate to urban areas leaving their family in the rural areas.

(c) Industries do not get sufficient manpower in rural areas.

(d) Development programmes are not effective.

(e) None of the above. (Ans)


4.  Which of the following is one of the far-reaching impacts of the policy?

(a) Give women coparcenary rights (Ans)

(b) Reservation for women

(c) Creating an equal-opportunity police force

(d) Accord women a decision making role in political sphere

(e) None of the above


5.  According to the passage which of the following is not true?

(a) The policy gives a blue print for programme of action.

(b) The women should be given greater control of police stations.

(c) There is no law-enforcement bias in cases of dowry.  (Ans)

(d) For effective implementation, the government agencies will have to reorder their priorities.

(e) The policy is based on the understanding of the needs of women.


6.  Which of the following has the danger of becoming a token?

(a) Socially progressive legislation

(b) Policy for women

(c) Coparcenary rights to women

(d) Man-woman relationships

(e) Reservation for women (Ans)


7.  Which of the following is opposite in meaning to ‘lofty’ as used in the passage?

(a) Sublimated

(b) Humble

(c) Inferior

(d) Exalted

(e) Undignified  (Ans)


8.  Which of the following words is the most opposite in meaning to ‘sweeping’ as used in the passage ?

(a) Limited  (Ans)

(b) Half-hearted

(c) Acceptable

(d) Incomplete

(e) Inconclusive


9.  Which of the following is nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘devolution’ as used in the passage?

(a) Relegation

(b) Succession

(c) Deployment

(d) Decentralization  (Ans)

(e) Revolution


10.  Which of the following words is most nearly the same in meaning as the word ‘enunciation‘ as used in the passage?

(a) Suggestion

(b) Formulation

(c) Recommendation

(d) Proclamation  (Ans)

(e) Recognition


11.  According to the passage, which of the following aspects has been identified as, it alone would not bring change in the status of women?

(a) Coprcenary rights to women

(b) Decision making role in political area

(c) Greater control over economic status

(d) Greating equal-opportunity police force

(e) Enactment of socially progressive legislation (Ans)


12.  Which of the following is the most nearly the same in meaning to ‘callousness’ as used in the passage ? 

(a) Prejudice

(b) Insensitivity  (Ans)

(c) Obliquities

(d) Casual

(e) Superiority


13.  Which of the following is nearly the same in meaning to the word ‘delineates’ as used in the passage?

(a) Discusses

(b) Demarcates

(c) Suggests

(d) Outlines  (Ans)

(e) Propagates


14.  At which stage were the grass-root level organizations involved for the  policy?

(a) After the interim report

(b) From the start  (Ans)

(c) At the final stages

(d) Not mentioned in the passage

(e) None of these


15.  According to the passage, which of the following is the basic block in the effective implementation of the policy?

(a) Prevalent power structure in society  (Ans)

(b) Inadequate legislation

(c) Insensitive administration

(d) Lack of political will

(e) Male dominated law-enforcing authorities.

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