Directions(1-9): Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
The education sector in India is in ferment, hit by a storm long waiting to happen. The butterfly that flapped its wings was the much-reiterated statement in a much publicised report that hardly a fourth of graduating engineers, and an even smaller percentage of other graduates, w as of employable quality for IT -BPO jobs. This triggered a cyclone when similar views were echoed by other sectors which led to widespread debate. Increased industry academic interaction, ” finishing schools”, and other efforts were initiated as immediate measures to bridge skill deficits. These, however, did not work as some felt that these are but band-aid solutions; instead, radical systemic reform is necessary.


Yet, there will be serious challenges to overdue reforms in the educat ion system. In India-as in many countries-education is treated as a holy cow sadly, the administrative system that oversees it has also been deceived. Today, unfortunately, there is no protest against selling drinking water or paying to be cured of illness, or for having to buy food when one is poor and starving; nor is there an out cry that in all these cases there are commercial companies operating on a profit-making basis. Why then, is there an instinctively adverse reaction to the formal entry of ‘for-profit’ institutes in the realm of education ? Is potable water, health or food, less basic a need, less important a right, than higher education ?
While there are strong arguments for free or subsidized higher education, we are not writing on a blank page. Some individuals and businessmen had entered this sector long back and found devious ways of making money, though the law stipulates that educational institutes must be ‘not-for profit’ trusts or societies. Yet, there is opposition to the entry of for-profit” corporate, which would be more transparent and accountable. As a result, desperately needed investment in promoting the wider reach of quality education has been stagnated at a time when financial figures indicate that the allocation of funds for the purpose is but a fourth of the need.
Well-run corporate organisations, within an appropriate regulatory framework, would be far better than the so – called trusts which – barring some noteworthy except ions-are a blot on education. However, it is not necessarily a question of choosing one over the other : different organisational forms can coexist, as they do in the health sector. A regulatory framework which creates competition, in tandem with a rating system, would automatically ensure the quality and relevance of education. As in sectors like telecom, and packaged goods, organisations will quickly expand into the hinterland to tap the large unmet demand. Easy Loan/scholarship arrangements would ensure affordability and access.
The only real structural reform in higher education was the creation of the institutes for technology and management. They were also given autonomy and freedom beyond that of the universities. However, in the last few years, determined efforts have been underway to curb their autonomy. These institutes, however, need freedom to decide on recruitment, salaries and admissions, so as to compete globally.
However, such institutes will be few. Therefore, we need a regulatory framework that will enable and encourage States and the Center, genuine philanthropists and also corporate to set up quality educational institutions. The regulatory system needs only to ensure transparency, accountability, competition and widely-available independent assessments or ratings. It is time for radical thinking, bold experimentation and new structures; it is time for the government to bite the bullet.


Why, according to the author, did the initiatives such as increased industry-academia and finishing schools did not help to bridge the skill deficit ?
(A) These steps were only superficial remedies and the problem could be answered only by reforming the entire education system.
(B) These initiatives operated on a profit-making basis rather than aiming at any serious systemic reforms.
(C) The allocation of funds of such initiatives was only one-fourth of the need.

Answer: Option A

Which of the following suggestions have been made by the author to improve the state of education in India ?

(A)         Allowing the corporate organisations to enter the education sector.
(B)        Easy availability of loans and scholarships for making education more affordable.
(C)        A rat ing system for all the organisations to ensure quality
Answer: Option D

Read the following passage and answer the question


Courage is not only the basis of virtue; it is its expression. faith, hope, charity and all the rest don’t become virtues until it takes courage to exercise them. There are roughly two types of courage. the first an emotional state which urges a man to risk injury or death, is physical courage. The second, more reasoning attitude which enables him to take coolly his career, happiness, his whole future or his judgement of what he thinks either right or worthwhile, is moral courage.
I have known many men, who had marked physical courage, but lacked moral courage. Some of them were in high places, but they failed to be great in themselves because they lacked moral courage. On the other hand I have seen men who undoubtedly possessed moral courage but were very cautious about taking physical risks. But I have never met a man with moral courage who couldn’t, when it was really necessary, face a situation boldly.

A man of courage is

Answer: Option D
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