Directions(Qn 1- Qn 2): Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.
(A) If only conclusion I follows
(B) If only conclusion II follows
(C) If either I or II follows
(D) If neither I nor II follows and
(E) If both I and II follow.
Statements: Raman is always successful. No fool is always successful.
I. Raman is a fool.
II. Raman is not a fool.
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, only II follows.
Statements: All men are dogs. All dogs are cats.
I. All men are cats.
II. All cats are men.
Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative. However, conclusion II, being an A-type proposition, distributes the term ‘cats’.Since the term ‘cats’ is distributed in II without being distributed in any of the premises, so conclusion II cannot follow. Thus, only I follows.
Statements: No man is a donkey. Rahul is a man.
- Rahul is not a donkey.
- All men are not Rahul.
Since on premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Conclusion II cannot follow as it contains the middle term. So, only I follows.
Statements: All trucks fly. Some scooters fly.
- All trucks are scooters.
- Some scooters do not fly.
Since the middle term ‘fly’ is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.
Statements: Most teachers are boys. Some boys are students.
- Some students are boys.
- Some teachers are students.
Since both the premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows. However, I is the converse of the second premise and thus it holds.